Brazil, promised to a bright future

We are only a few hours away from Rio de Janeiro, its frenzied beaches and electrical atmosphere. Yet, it is to discover a wine industry undergoing a revolution that we are in Brazil. Here the production of quality wine – although promised to have a bright future – just turns 25!

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It is in the south of the country, in Serra Gaucha, that we have an appointment to visit the country’s largest producing region (1), where the vine was introduced by the Jesuits in 1626 (2). Arriving by bus from Montevideo, we were expected in Porto Alegre by Joana Monteiro, a team member of Schenker Do Brasil, who accompanied us to discover the Brazilian vineyards.

A young viticulture to be taken (very) seriously

No sooner than we arrived in Bento Gonçalves, the capital of viticulture, we were invited to lunch by the team of Wines of Brasil for a brief lesson of history and the opportunity to enjoy a delicious Churrasco (3). The round of servers, with their meat dishes one more appetizing than the other, was relentless. What a wonderful welcome!

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We learned that Brazil is the fifth largest wine producer in the southern hemisphere and has been cultivating vines since the beginning of its colonization. However, it was only with the opening of the market to imports in the early 90s – which allowed consumers to realize what was considered as “good” wine on an international level – that Brazil began to turn to serious quality. “Without prior references to other wines of the world, it was difficult for Brazilian wine producers to know how their wines compared in the global market place and to pull their quality of production upwards”, one said.

The Vale dos Vinhedos, an air of Tuscany

Our program of visits were largely concentrated in the Vale dos Vinhedos, the first Geographical Indication recognized in Brazil since 2002.

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The landscape is of a wild and naive beauty and is curiously reminiscent of Tuscany – the region from which many Italian immigrants came from. Here we were facing steep hills. A fragmented topography with small hills culminating to 700 meters where vines are mostly planted on the hillside, requiring arigorous manual labor.
It was late December and can one could feel the excitement of the harvest which was to begin soon (4).

Perini

Perini


The Vale Trentino, 1 hour east of here, is also a region with great potential, where wineries like Perini, bordered by vast wilderness and forests, take production forward.

World-class sparkling wines

The conclusion is clear, the Brazilian bubble is a fine wine. And we feasted with it! Whether made from the traditional or Charmat method (5) (more industrial, but able to give very nice results, like at Chandon for example), we were amazed by the consistency and the freshness of Brazilian sparkling wines. With a promising future, they are today at the center of attention.  Just at Casa Valduga, no less than 12 effervescent wines are produced in the range!

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Heart stroke for Cave Geisse, a beautiful estate in the heights of Pinto Bandeira, that produces exceptional bubbles, on volcanic and basaltic soils of the Jurassic. Daniel Geisse, the winemaker, is a perfectionist. You can judge for yourself : average aging between 2 to 5 years (going up to 15 years for magnums!), a maximum of 30-days stock, disgorging every day, traditional riddling and manual harvest in cases of 3 to 5 kg. When you realize that the winery stocks 600,000 bottles in the cellar while it produces only 200,000 per year…we are speaking about world class bubbles.

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Our Brazilian heart strokes in sparkling wines:
Extra Brut 2011 from Cave Geisse  (50% Pinot Noir, 50% Chardonnay ; 3 years on lees)
Gran Nature 2009 from Casa Valduga (70% Chardonnay, 30% Pinot Noir ; 5 years on lees)
Safra Nature 2009 from Cave Geisse (50% Pinot Noir, 50% Chardonnay ; 5 years on lees)
Brut 2011 from Miolo (50% Pinot Noir, 50% Chardonnay ; 18 months on lees)
Excellence Prestige Rosé NM from Chandon (20% Chardonnay, 80% Pinot Noir, Charmat method, 3 years old based wine ; 12 months on lees)
José “Bepi” Salton Nature NM from Salton (50% Pinot Noir, 50% Chardonnay ; 4 years on lees)

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Aurora, the wine cooperative with a thousand winegrowers

Located in the center of Bento Gonzalvez, the Aurora wine cooperative – which represents 10% of the Brazilian wine production – is a tremendous economic lever that preserves the rural history of the region. Established in 1931 with 16 farmers, the cooperative  now has over 1,100 families of winegrowers, all shareholders and spread over 3,000 hectares of vineyards. Each winemaker is a co-owner of the entity. Buying grapes thus depend on sugar levels rather than mass, in order to encourage families to focus more on quality. Brillant.

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Our heart strokes in Brazilian still wines:
Grande Vindimia Merlot 2008 from Lidio Carraro (100% Merlot)
Raizes Corte 2010 from Casa Valduga (40% Cabernet Sauvignon, 40% Cabernet Franc, 20% Tannat)
Sesmarias 2011 from Miolo (Touriga Nacional, Tinta Roriz, Tannat, Petit Verdot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot)
Talento 2009 from Salton (40% Cabernet  Sauvignon, 30% Merlot, 10% Tannat)
Merlot Reserva 2011 from Pizzato (100% Merlot)
Pinto Bandeira Pinot noir 2013 from Aurora (100% Pinot Noir)
Quatro 2009 from Perini (Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Tannat, Ancelota)

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Wine tourism, the charming asset

Brazil has it all, oenotourism is everywhere! In a world where overproduction and competition are raging, the key to success and recognition begins with a strong (and positive) image. Otherwise, any new wine – however good it may be – can never receive the recognition it deserves.
Already at Casa Valduga, Maria Valduga, the caring grandmother, was a pioneer in terms of wine tourism in Brazil : she loved offering dinner to every passing visitor.

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Today Brazilian estates compete for creativity and tourism initiatives, as at Miolo with the “Winemaker’s project”, where wine lovers come five times a year to learn how to make wine and leave with ten cases of it with their own label. At Salton we enjoyed an unforgettable visit of the “Cave da Evolução” on lantern  8 meters deep underground and amid religious songs that captivated us. At Don Giovanni, the seven-bedroom hotel has no television and no internet, to fully recharge your vitality and to better learn to live in the community.
At Lidio Carraro, one of the wines from the estate was chosen in 2014 as the official wine of the FIFA World Cup in Brazil. A friendly hand to a winery that began in 1998, the year of the famous 3-0 for France against Brazil. A sweet memory, which already seems far away.

Miolo

Miolo


With our harts heart full of emotions and discoveries, we finished our stay with a brief passage in São Paulo for an interview with the national channel Globo. We stayed with our friend Janaina Costa Pereira and her family. The moment was touching because it was the first time they invited strangers home. All their family and friends made the trip to dine with us. Despite the language barrier, we spent a wonderful time where grilled meat, caipirinha and laughs punctuated the evening until dawn.

 

 WineExplorers’cheers,
JBA

 

Thank you to Casa Valduga, Miolo, Lidio Carraro, Aurora, Cave Geisse, Salton, Perini, Peterlongo, Pizzato, Don Giovanni and Chandon estates for their warm welcome ; to Joana Monteiro for having accompanied us, to Wines of Brazil for the great organization of our stay in Brazil and for the planning of visits and tastings ; to Schenker Do Brazil for their support and time, to Janaina Costa Pereira and her family for their extraordinary welcome and accommodation in São Paulo despite the language barrier ; to Vino e Arte and Barbarella Bakery for these beautiful tastings in Porto Alegre.

 

(1) In addition of Serra Gaucha and Campanha regions in the South, the state of Bahia, far north, defeated the laws of nature in terms of wine production, only 1,050 km from the equator, in the Vale do Sao Francisco (9° parallel South) .
(2) The first vines were brought to Brazil by the Portuguese Martim Afonso de Souza in 1532, with an agricultural foremost goal. It was only in 1551 that the first Brazilian wine was made. But it was not until 1626 that the industry really started, spurred by the Jesuits (for religious celebrations).
(3) Churrasco : Brazilian barbecue
(4) Harvests in Brazil are from the end of December to early January for sparkling wines, early February for white wines and from late February to early March for red wines.
(5) The Charmat method forces the second fermentation to happen in a large stainless steel tank prior to bottling, rather than in the bottle like the traditional méthode champenoise. The Charmat method is a cheaper means for pushing a wine through second fermentation and is best used on sparkling wines that are meant to be consumed young and relatively fresh. 

For more information on Brazilian wines : http://www.winesofbrasil.com.

Uruguay, among cattle and good bottles

Having left Bolivia on a Tuesday morning at dawn, we needed no fewer than three flights, two stops and a full day in transportation to rally Uruguay at nightfall!

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Direct flights are not common between these two countries. After the journey from Tarija-La Paz, La Paz-Buenos Aires to Buenos Aires-Montevideo, we were greeted at the airport by Pablo Huarte, a school friend native to Montevideo whom we met a few years earlier during our respective studies in Bordeaux.

The second home of Cognac

Our journey began with Bodega Juanico (1 hour North of Montevideo), the most important estate of Uruguay, with 360 hectares of vines over five regions. It accounts for 1/4 of the wine production of the country. Suffice to say that during harvest time, no fewer than 200 workers are required. Because in Uruguay harvesting is done exclusively by hand!

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Owned by the government between 1945 and 1979, the history of Juanico is touching. The concrete cellar of the estate, created in 1945 for the production of Cognac, was a gift from France. Yes, yes, a production of Cognac. In acknowledgment of the meat sent by Juanico during World War II to help our country. A beautiful lesson of humanity and a rare exception in the world since the Cognac appellation is protected. Except for an Uruguayan micro-production…

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With 2000 mm of rain per year (more than twice the rainfall in Bordeaux) distributed over the periods July-August-September and January-February, combined with heavy clay and limestone soils, the region is prone to disease and quite a few treatments are required, both preventive and curative. Fortunately, the breezes brought by the ocean help to dry the vines and enable the production of good quality wines. Evidenced by their delicious Botrytis Noble 2010, blend of Gewurztraminer, Sauvignon Blanc, Gros Manseng, Sauvignon Gris (90g of residual sugar).

El Vino de Mesa

The history of wine in Uruguay dates back to the Italian and Spanish immigrants in the eighteenth century. Today, 95% of the 9 000 hectares of wine in the country are stamped “Vino de Mesa” and are usually sold in Tetra Packs or in one liter bottles. These wines are chaptalised (1) and consumed exclusively in Uruguay.

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Most of the wineries are producing Vino de Mesa, like Juanico (40% of the production) or Varela Zarranz (90% of the production) for example. Because even if these wines are of little interest to the amateur of fine wines, they are inked in the traditions of the country and many consumers love them for their sweetness. It also allows wineries to keep only the best grapes for their production of great wine, and thus increase their quality.

Tannat & Co

Fancy a ride on a bike or in a golf cart? Welcome to Finca Narbona, in Puerto Carmelo, where you can walk freely visiting the 15 hectares of vines in this beautiful place classified Relais & Château.

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Here, the granite stones are ideal for growing red grapes because of their high pH. White varietals are planted in the South, near Punta del Este and the famous beaches of the “St Tropez of South America“, where the fresher oceanic climate, is more suitable. A nice surprise with the cuvée Blend 001, a red blend with varieties kept secret and made from three vintages (2010, 2012 and 2013!). I suspect it to have some Tannat… but the mystery remains.

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We ended our journey with Pisano winery, in El Progresso. I must confess, it was our Uruguayan heart stroke. Pisano is a family vineyard run by three talented and lovely brothers and it benefits from clay and limestone soils with very high pH (7.5 to 8), which give mineral and complex wines. Located in the heart of the great wine region of the country, 95% of the vineyard  is organic. The estate is constantly innovating. One of their latest creations : the surprising and delicious Tannat Brut Nature 2011, a red sparkling wine with a nose of dark berries, fine bubbles, a good freshness and very fine tannins. It matches perfectly with the bloody and juicy pieces of meat from the asado served at lunch!

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Some other wines we particularly appreciated:
Bodegas Carrau, cuvée Tannat de Reserva 2003
Varela Zarranz, cuvée Brut Nature Chardonnay
Pisano, cuvée Arretxea Gran Reserva Tannat 2009
Vina Progreso, cuvée Suenos de Elisa 2011, Tannat fermented in barrels with the whole berries

The asado, much more than a tradition, an institution

We were warned: with 52kg of meat consumed per capita per year, Uruguayans are among the biggest meat eaters on the planet. Not surprising considering the quality of the meat here and how much Uruguayans love to prepare their traditional asado.

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The cooking process involves exposing the meat to the heat of the coals for slow cooking and tender meat ; regularly basting with pan juices. This traditional dish, a national pride, is also a social catalyst ; a custom rooted in the country since the beginning of time. “Every Uruguayan house is built with an outdoor stone oven-grill, especially for cooking asado”, one said.

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Tasted several times and to our great pleasure – with friends on Montevideo or during lunch when meeting with the winemakers – like here at Pisano, the Uruguayan “asado” is way more than grilling, it is an institution (2).

 

WineExplorers’cheers,
JBA

 

Thank you to Pisano, Juanico, Varela Zarranz, Narbona and Bodegas Carrau estates for their warm welcome, and to Pablo Huarte for having arranged these meetings.

(1) Chaptalization: adding sugar to the must to increase the final degree of alcohol in the wine after fermentation.
(2) A friendly rivalry endures on the quality of the meat since forever between Argentina and Uruguay.

For more information on Uruguayan wines : http://www.winesofuruguay.com

Bolivia, between heaven and earth

The arrival by bus from Peru was calamitous with a 32-hour journey driving on roads one more chaotic than the other!

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Having arrived in La Paz, the capital, which rises up to 3 660 meters above sea level, it was impossible for me to breath normally. My head was going to explode. I had to stay in bed for two days in the dark to recover… Acute mountain sickness is not fun at all !

“Vinos de Altura“

Healed, we took the direction of the central valley of Tarija (1) to the south, where 2,400 hectares of vineyards, cultivated at between 1,600 and 2,150 meters, were awaiting us. A unique wine topography named Vinos de Altura by Wines of Bolivia for their promotional campaigns of communication – because all the vineyards in the country are cultivated at between 1,600 and 3,000 meters above sea level !

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Therefore – and even if the vines are located between the 17º and the 22º parallels, south to the equator – the climate is temperate, semi-arid and allows for the production of quality wines.
Also a boon for the development of wine tourism in the region, through hikes and excursions coupled with visits to wineries.

Heroic viticulture

We were invited for a walk in the vineyard of Casa Real – one of the six major players in the country (2) – by José Luis Aguirre, Managing Director of the family estate.
Facing us, ancient lakes from the Jurassic period, extending to the horizon, gave way to lunar areas of a rare beauty.

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« In Tarija, viticulture is heroic », José Luis explained. Because soil erosion is an important factor and the working conditions are harsh. Both for man with the oppressive heat and the fragmented topography of the land and for machines, which are struggling to make their way.
Be aware, he added, that the brightness is such in this region of the world that resveratrol (3) is found in greater concentration here in the red grapes than usually found in Pinot Noir (supposed to be the variety that contains the most!).

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As a result, the estate has focused on the production of high quality sparkling wines, such as Altosama NV, a blend of Chardonnay, Pinot Meunier, Pinot Blanc, Muscat and Xarell Lo, that we had the pleasure of tasting at lunch.

From sacramental wine to modernity

The wine history of Bolivia goes back to 1548 with the arrival of the Spanish conquerors and is reminiscent of its South American neighbours (4). Far away from the sacramental wines of the old days, the country is now producing  fine wines  which sometimes age very well. As at La Concepción estate, where Claudia Morales, the owner, arranged a wine tasting of the 2006 vintage for us in the vineyard.

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Her Cepas de Altura Syrah 2006 is remarkable. « Here, the terroir is wonderful and it has all the ingredients to make great wines. The only problem is the theft of grapes at night during the harvest. We must be vigilant since we could lose up to 50% of the crop because of this plague! », said Claudia.

Some other nice Bolivian wines that we tasted : Cabernet Sauvignon 2012 from Kohlberg, the delicious Juan Cruz Tannat 2012 from Aranjuez ; Colección de Altura 2010 (blend of  Petit Verdot, Tannat and Malbec) from Campos de Solana and the very elegant Cabernet Sauvignon 2010 from Sausini.

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Chuflay or Singani Sour ?

If there is a vineyard where we you would love to settle down for the weekend, it is at Sausini, a boutique estate owned by Mario Hinojosa Antezana, an hour far away from Tarija. Like a  conqueror, Panama on, neatly trimmed beard, in an impeccable white linen shirt, cigar in one hand and cane in the other, Mario was waiting on the porch of the family house, adjacent to the winery. « The place is rustic and we are farmers », he said smiling.

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Just a few steps to go from the vineyard to the garden, where we met with two beautiful parrots, both talkative and curious.
After the visit, we were invited to enjoy an aperitif. A sacred word that rhymes here with Singani (5), a traditional spirit made from the distillation of Muscat of Alexandria wine, featuring flavours of orange peel.

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Served in several cocktails at lunchtime, in Chuflay (with ice and ginger ale or Canada Dry) and in Singani Sour (with lemon juice and bitters), take care not to abuse of this delicious drink that is better than whey.
Or you will have to enjoy another local custom : a short but saving nap…

WineExplorers’cheers,
JBA 


Thank you to Sergio Prudencio Navarro from Wines of Bolivia for his help and great organization of our stay, as well as Casa Real, La Concepción, Kohlberg, Aranjuez, Campos de Solana and Sausini wineries for their warm welcome.

(1) With a total of 3,000 hectares, Bolivia has many valleys where wine is produced: the Tarija Central Valley with 2,400 hectares of vineyards (1,600 to 2,150 meters above sea level) ; Los Cintis Valley with 300 hectares (2,220 to 2,414 m); Santa Cruz Valley with 100 hectares (1,600 – 2,030 m) and various valleys in Potosí, La Paz and Cochabamba, with nearly 200 hectares between 1600 and 3000 meters.
(2) The country has hundreds of small wineries, including 6 major players.
(3) Resveratrol is a polyphenol from the stilbenes class, present in some fruit like grapes, blackberries and peanuts. Significant amounts are found in wine where its presence was evoked to explain the beneficial health effects of a moderate wine consumption.
(4) See previous articles on Mexico and Peru
(5) Singani spirits from Casa Real, La Concepción and Sausini estates are particularly delicious.

 For more information on Bolivian wines : http://www.winesofbolivia.com

Peru, an undeniable terroir in the Inca lands

Far away from the sumptuous Machu Picchu and other Titicaca Lakes, it was in Lima where we started our trip. We had an appointment with Professor Eduardo D’Argent – Director of the Institute of Wine and Pisco – for a brief lesson of history (1). A nice appetizer.

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The first vines were established here in Inca in 1540, shortly after the conquest of the country by Spain. And even though the Peruvian wine industry had its glory in the 17th century – thanks to the demand created by the mining city of Potosí, in present Bolivia (the largest city of the Americas at the time) – it collapsed after the Civil War (1861- 1865). Today it represents 14,000 hectares of vines for a production of 610,000 hectoliters of wine per year, between the cities of Pisco and Ica (2).

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Tacama, a pioneering winery in modern viticulture

We were expected at Tacama, the oldest winery of Peru (established in the mid 16th century). We headed to the Ica Valley by car with a driver (thank you Tacama!) It is “only“ 300 km away from the capital – yet about 6 hours driving! – due to the country’s roads being precarious and the traffic jams endless… A little bit shaken by the trip, we arrived at night at the gates of the estate.To our surprise, we were welcomed by soldiers on guard in uniform and armed with rifles and pistols.

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We were warned repeatedly about the lack of security in this region, but still… “Violence and looting are numerous in the area, as the success of some arouses the strongest desires of many others”,  Frédéric Thibaut, the winemaker of the domain, explained to us the next day. We were asked to turn around and to find a hotel : we arrived too late and staying at the estate for the night was too dangerous.
After a short sleep and a quick coffee on the go, we were picked up by a 4*4 of Tacama. The ​​200-hectares estate is as beautiful as surprising with its architecture of Spanish hacienda. Not surprising when one learns that the owner likes to come there to ride.

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Although here, they have been working with France for a century (since 1920), with regard to grape varieties, technology and expertise. Tacama has always been surrounded by the greatest experts, including Professors Jean Ribéreau-Gayon, Émile Peynaud (3), Max Rives, Alain Carbonneau and Pascal Ribéreau-Gayon… just that!

The estate’s wines are delicious, like Seleccion Especial 2012 (a Petit Verdot/Tannat red blend, very fruity), Don Manuel Tannat 2012 and Don Manuel Petit Verdot 2013 (two superb wines aged in French oak barrels). We even had the opportunity to enjoy a Pisco (4).

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The Ica Valley, exceptional terroirs similar to Chile

The richness of terroirs is undeniable in the Valley of Ica and it plays in the big leagues. Because in prehistoric times, during the great period of thaw, enormous and devastating mudslides slid down from the Andes to the Pacific Ocean – forming the current valleys. It coined the basements of the valley, with stony and sandy foundations, resulting in superb alluvial soils.

During our visits it was mentioned  that”The hot and dry climate reminds one of Chile”.  Moreover, Professor Max Rives, who spent a lot of time studying Peru, said regarding Ica : “this region is adapted to produce wines under exceptional conditions… thanks to its climate and soil characteristics”. And even if the lack of precipitation in Ica requires controlled irrigation, Professor Rives was also convinced that it could produce quality wines comparable to the products of the best wine producing countries in the world. This shows the potential.

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It would not be surprising to see wine investment flourishing in the coming years, especially knowing the Peruvian GDP growth, steadily increasing for the 15th consecutive year (5). Evidenced by current study projects in the Sagrado Valley – at 3000m – and also around Arequipa, more to the south.

Santiago Queirolo, a small piece of paradise at the foot of the Andes

The only wine tourism complex in the country is located at the Santiago Queirolo estate, proud owner of the Hôtel Viñas Queirolo, nearby  Tacama.  We were invited here for two days to discover the charms of the valley and to enjoy traditional dishes.

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Luckily, Peruvian cuisine is among the most diverse in the world, as evidenced by the fact that it would have the greatest number of dishes (491). We discovered ceviche, a specialty dish made ​​with raw white fish – preferably lenguado (sole) – “cooked” in lemon juice and served with sweet potato, cassava and maize. A great opportunity to enjoy the very fresh white wines of the estate with this dish. Proof that Peru also produces elegant white wines. “They have a very nice freshness and are very interesting wines”, Melina Bertocchi, a wine journalist in Lima, confirmed.

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The premium range of the winery, “Intipalka“, offers interesting wines, such as Sauvigon Blanc 2014, Malbec-Merlot Reserva 2012, Cabernet Sauvignon-Syrah Reserva 2012 or even the very serious Intipalka N°1 2010 (blend of Cabernet Sauvignon, Tannat and Syrah).

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During our last evening here we admired the sunset from the top of the vineyard, 500 meters above sea level, in front of the foothills of the Andes, a glass of Extra Brut NV in the hand (100% Chardonnay). From here we admired the 120 hectares of vineyards (6) adjacent to the resort. Between the mountain behind our backs and the sandy vineyards at our feet, the view was breathtaking.

Borgoña, the iconic wine of the country

Near Pisco, we stopped at Tabernero winery, the 3rd largest producer in the country, to discover Borgoña, a wine which is difficult to ignore as it represents 85 % of the Peruvian wine production! This is also the favorite “wine” (7) of Peru. Made from Isabelle (the grape variety that apparently makes people crazy), it is a good introduction to start drinking wine. The result is a very sweet beverage with flavors of candy.

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We ended our stay with a visit to Santiago Queirolo’s cellars in Pachacamac, a suburb of Lima. A name that recalls the adventures of Tintin and ThePrisoners of the Sun, one of my favorite comics and in which Tintin and his friend Captain Haddock, upon arriving in Peru, are looking for Professor Calculus, who is prisoner aboard the Pachacamac cargo.

Now let’s go to La Paz by bus…! So dear friends be warned : those who have not (yet) spent 32 hours trapped in a bus traveling at full speed on steep and winding roads, climbing to peaks of up to 4,300 meters will struggle to imagine the nightmare of the Lima-La Paz drive.

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1,552 km under a scorching sun. Besides that, be careful not to get off the bus for more than 5 minutes – during the rare breaks – otherwise it could leave without you! As a result, upon arriving in La Paz at 3,600 meters (the highest capital in the world), I was sick for 2 days. Long live acute mountain sickness (AMS) – also named Monge disease… an experience lived here against my sandstones ! 

WineExplorers’cheers,
JBA

  

Thank you to Professor Eduardo D’Argent and journalist Melina Bertocchi for their valuable advice, as well as Tacama, Santiago Queirolo and Tabernero wineries for their warm welcome.

(1) Professor Eduardo D’Argent has just written a book on the history of the Peruvian wine named Vino y pisco en la historia del Perú. And there has always been a friendly rivalry between Peru (1540) and Mexico (1520) about which of the two was the wine pioneer of the Americas…
(2) The main grape varieties grown are Alicante Bouschet, Barbera, Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Malbec, Muscat, Sauvignon Blanc and Torontel.
(3) Emile Peynaud, nicknamed the “father of modern oenology” revolutionized winemaking techniques in the second half of the twentieth century; introducing particular techniques such as crushing and fermentation in separate lots.
(4) Pisco is a brandy produced by distilling grape wine into a high-proof spirit. Peruvian pisco is produced only using copper pot stills, like single malt Scotch whiskies, rather than continuous stills, like most vodkas.
(5) 350 hectares, planted in the Cañete Valley, complete Santiago Queirolo’s production.
 (6) Technically, Borgoña can not be considered as wine, since it is a Vitis labrusca, not a Vitis Vinifera.