Cyprus, an island full of (wine) treasures

Legend has it that Cyprus was called “the island of love” after Aphrodite was born from foam at the point where the sea throws itself on the rocks of the coast of Paphos… The reality, in fact, is just as idyllic on the wine side.

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Located on the easternmost part of the Mediterranean Sea, in the Levantine basin(1), the island is full of wine treasures : a history rich in traditions, indigenous varieties as varied as interesting, and the production of Commandaria, the oldest wine still in production. There was nothing more needed to sharpen our curiosity.

A plurimillenary wine tradition

Welcome to Cyprus, an island of just 1.3 million inhabitants, with around 60 estates(2) spread over 7900 hectares of vineyards, producing about 81000 hl per year(3).

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Our focus was on four essential wine producers, along with Manon Perramond, a young (and talented) photographer who accompanied the Wine Explorers at this new destination.

“Did you know that the wine-growing history of Cyprus is 5000 years old ?!”… It was with these words that we were receive with an enthusiastic energy by Mrs. Loannides, who was smiling from ear to ear. She and her husband – an 85-year-old doctor, still active – are winegrowers and the owners of the Ayia Mavri estate in central Cyprus.

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A wonderful meeting, full of humanity and positivism, where passion was more palpable than ever. Like her husband, she speaks about wine with stars in the eyes. Started in 1983, the estate produces 50,000 bottles and has been nicknamed “the sweet vineyard” by the locals, thanks to its specialization in the production of world-class sweet wines. They even have some Xynisteri vines (a delicious white indigenous grape) 100 years old… To be discovered urgently!

An island under the sign of the sun

On the way to our second visit, we were surprised to discover a lot of water heaters on the roofs of the buildings of the island.

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“The weather is so beautiful all year round that people provide their hot water needs with the sun”, Mrs. Sofroniou, from the Ministry of Energy, Trade, Industry and Tourism of Cyprus, who accompanied us during the visits, explained. “We do not use electricity from April to October, only solar panels, to supply our homes with hot water”.

Rendez-vous at Vlassides estate, a very pretty property of 18 hectares, located on the plateau of Koilani, at 700m above sea level, in the center of the island – established by Sophocle Vlassides in 1998.

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At the time, Sophocle already had the vision to transform the small shop of his grandfather to produce “garage wine”. He studied oenology at the University of Davis, California. In 2012, the success was there and the team moved to a new, more modern cellar, with a cave dug 9 meters into the rock, to preserve the freshness of the wines. As you will have realized, it is hot in Cyprus.

We visited the vineyard at 8am… at 27°C. Panos Magalios, the assistant oenologist, explained to us that Vlassides produces 120,000 bottles a year, mainly from the grape varieties Xynisteri, Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Sauvignon Blanc. In recent years, the estate has experimented with some indigenous Cypriot varieties such as Maratheftiko and Yiannoudi (red), and Promara and Morokanella (white).

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“We need to experiment more to see which grape varieties are best suited to the heat, as well as to the high humidity present during summer time”, Panos said.

Kyperounda, one of the highest vineyards in Europe

During the discovery of Kyperounda winery, we were accompanied by Minas Mina, a fantastic and passionate Cypriot winemaker! Built at the end of the 1990s, Kyperounda belongs to more than 40 shareholders, whose control and management are placed in the hands of the Photos Photiades group.

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The estate was built on three levels, in order to use gravity to move the grape juice in the gentlest way possible.
The cellar, located in the region of Pitsilia, 75 km from Nicosia and 50 km from Limassol, is magnificent. With an altitude of 1,400 meters above sea level (one of the highest in Europe), the schist and loess soils (very poor), are fantastic for the production of deep and precise wines. Add to this low yields and cool nights – unique in the region – this combination makes the Kyperounda estate one of the jewels of Cyprus viticulture…

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A special mention for its Commandaria (100% Xynisteri). A unique type of sweet wine exclusively found in Cyprus, developed at the foot of the Troodos Mountains. This is the oldest wine in the world still in production, and is made from the grape varieties Xynisteri (white) and/or Mavro (red), whose clusters are dried in the sun to concentrate the grape berries into sugar. The juice from pressing is then fermented naturally in stainless steel vats (even sometimes in terracotta jars), then fortified(4) to reach an alcohol level of about 15%. The wine is then brought to the cellars of Limassol, where it is aged in oak barrels for a minimum of two years. The result : concentrated sweet wines with an amber color and a perfume of resin, pine, dried fruit and nuts. A delight…

Yiannoudin, (red) favorite grape

We ended our stay by visiting Tsiakkas winery, in the village of Pelendri, in the south of the island.

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Perched at an altitude of 1000m, it is probably one of the most beautiful vineyards in Cyprus, with its northern exposition and amphitheater shape. Costas Tsiakkas, the owner of the estate and a former businessman (he was a banker in a previous life), started in 1988 with only 5,000 bottles. Today, with a production of 150,000 bottles, his success is impressive.

His secret? The search for unrecognized or forgotten indigenous grape varieties. “I like to focus on local grape varieties : they are more resistant to diseases and are the future of Cypriot winemaking, both in terms of taste and identity”.

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Here we discovered Yiannoudin, a red grape with very fine skin and berries, and concentrated juice. And a special mention for the cuvée Yiannoudin 2014, a generous red wine full of depth and freshness, with notes of wild black fruit, leather, spices and cigar. We loved it!

We departed from Cyprus with stars in our eyes… A (wine) destination of great interest. And a country full of authentic people and wine treasures. Our last meal on the beach, a plate of Halloumi (the traditional cheese) and a glass of Ouzo.

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Another facet of the rich local gastronomic heritage.

WineExplorers’cheers,
JBA

 

Thank you to Vlassides, Ayia Mavri, Kyperounda Winery and Tsiakkas Winery for their warm welcome. Thanks also to the Trade Office of the Embassy of Cyprus in Paris and to the Ministry of Energy, Trade, Industry and Tourism of Cyprus for having organized and supported this visit in such a beautiful way. Finally, thanks to the young and talented photographer Manon Perramond for participating in the trip.

 

(1) The Levantine Basin is a subdivision of the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea and corresponds to its easternmost part (Southern Turkey, Cyprus, Middle East).
(2) The island has about 60 commercial domains, as well as many small domestic plantations intended for private consumption.
(3) Production 2016 – source : Cypriot Ministry of Energy, Trade, Industry and Tourism.
(4) Following fermentation, the wine is fortified, either with a wine brandy containing 95% alcohol by volume or a distilled wine containing 70% by volume of alcohol.

The Croatian viticulture, in the pantheon of the great ones

One could sum up the richness of the Croatian vineyards with these two sentences: “its vine cultivation goes back as far as the first inhabitants who settled here”. Adding that “the list of indigenous grape varieties is as long as the Croatian coast”. It sets the scenary.

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However, it was not until the early 1990s – and Croatia’s independence – that many individuals could reclaim land previously requisitioned by the state(1). Over the past two decades, Croatia has regained its reputation, producing both extraordinary and varied wines.
From Continental Croatia (north), to Dalmatia (south), via Slavonia (along the Hungarian, Serbian and Bosnian borders) and Istria (west), each of the four Croatian wine regions deserves a stop. Story of a journey full of unforgettable discoveries.

Continental Croatia, land of great white and sparkling wines

Welcome to the coolest region of Croatia, with its scenery of steep hills with rounded summits, rural villages and carefully maintained vineyards, producing excellent white, sparkling… and even ice wines!

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Visiting Cmrečnjak estate, in the village of Štrigova. A unique terroir with a maximum altitude of 340m and clay soils, ideal for the cultivation of grape varieties such as Posipel (Furmint), Silvanac zeleni (Sylvaner) or Grasevina (Welschriesling). Marko Cmrečnjak, 4th generation of winegrowers, is proud to follow in his father’s footsteps and “could not imagine another job in life”. His cuvée “Ledena Vino 2012“, a 100% Grasevina ice wine, is fantastic!

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Not far from Zagreb, in the village of Jastrebarsko (Plešivica region), we discovered the Sember family, a great producer of sparkling wines in traditional methods.

“Thanks to a cooler continental climate, limestone soils and a 6-hectare well-exposed vineyard on hillsides, we have the optimum conditions for the production of fine bubbles”, Nikola, the eldest son, explained. A project of sparkling wine made in amphorae is currently being tested.

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We tried the “orange” wine in fermentation, in the amphorae buried in the garden. Promising.

Coups de cœur for the Teran and the Malvazija istarska

Istria. Such a beauty… In the north-west of Croatia, discover this wild region with crazy charm, still preserved, where we had the happiness to discover the grape varieties Teran and Malvazija istarska.

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Here, the typical “terra rossa” red soils of the region (loaded with iron), combined with a unique micro climate and strict green harvests (maximum yields of 1.5kg per vine for the best estates), offer wines as greedy as they are deep.

It was at Coronica estate, in the extreme northwest of the Istrian peninsula, where we fell under the spell of the Teran. A red grape variety with fine skin and bulky berries, difficult to work with.

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“It is important to harvest teran with 20% resinous grapes to add complexity to the wine”, Moreno Coronica, a winemaker as charming as he is talented, explained. Result : deep and straight wines, with superb tannins and insolent freshness. Made for aging.

A few kilometers away, in the coastal village of Višnjan, the Radovan family, with 9 hectares of vines, showcases Malvazija istarska, a white grape with aromas of almond kernel, apricot, ripe white fruits and wild flowers.

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“Here, nature is beautiful: the sea wind blows on the vineyard in the morning, refreshing the air, and the land wind blows in the evening, softening the atmosphere”, Franko, the father, enthused. Their cuvée “Malvazija Istarska 2015” is a pure delight!

Léo Gracin, the rock star of the Babič

It is in Primošten, at the grandmother’s house of our friend (and formidable guide) Barbara Bacic, that we met Léo Gracin, one of the great figures of Croatian viticulture.

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Winemaker of talent, Léo is also a Doctor of oenology, a professor at the University of Zagreb and a consultant for the finest Croatian estates. His casual look and his permanent smile make him a character as friendly as he is charismatic. Léo owns one hectare of vineyard in the Bucavac Primošten appellation, in Dalmatia, which is going to become the first Croatian wine-growing region classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The fragmented topography of the site, the hard rock soils, the obligation to work by hand, the plots all being isolated from each other, the ban on irrigation and the incredible difficulty of working in this vineyard (44°C in summer, forcing the workers to start their days at 4am and ending them at 11am…), probably make it one of the most atypical vineyards that we have ever discovered.

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Discovering the babič, a Croatian red grape originally from Primošten and wonderfully vinified by Leo. Its sweetened version, called Prošek(3), a Dalmatian specialty, is of great complexity and pairs fantastically with local cheeses.

Stina Vino, an extreme vineyard

Croatia has 1185 islands and islets. Some of them are home to some of the most beautiful vineyards in the world. Welcome to the island of Brač, 50 minutes by ferry south of Split, famous for its white stone (Stina). A small multi-century wine-growing paradise, which has seen the apparition of very interesting indigenous grape varieties, such as Plavac mali, in red.

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Visit of Stina Vino, a gorgeous estate, with 70 hectares of vines spread over two sites. One of them is undoubtedly one of the most extreme vineyards visited during the project. Literally carved into the rock, this parcel is culminated at 650 meters above sea level and dives into the sea, with slopes having 65% of inclination! In other words, to work there requires above all the art of the tightrope walker… Risking to (slightly) descend in a row of vines myself, I failed not falling…

The second plot – 45 hectares in one piece – is located between 420 and 520m above sea level. The brightness of the sun reflecting on these very special white stone soils, gave the vineyard a lunar aspect.

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A real postcard. The result: magnificent wines, concentrated and of great freshness ; like the red cuvée “Plavac mali remek djelo 2011“.

The island of Korčula and its treasures of indigenous grape varieties

Once upon a time there was the Grk, a white grape variety from the village of Lumbarda, on the island of Korčula – and the specialty of Frano Bire.

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“Grk”, in Croatian, means “bitter”. In reality, the wine is dry, with beautiful tension. Cultivated on the sandy soils of Lumbarda, where it ripens best, it develops beautiful aromas, like notes of pine.

“The Grk grape has only female flowers. To ensure its pollination, it must be co-planted with another grape variety with male flowers, usually the Plavac mali”, Frano Bire, a very sympathetic vine grower, owner and winemaker of Bire Winery, explained. Great wines, full of emotion, to discover on the spot… micro-production obliges.

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On the other side of the island, we met with Luka Krajančić, a native of Korčula. “I am only a small part of a local history of 2,500 years”.

Painter, poet, philosopher, winegrower… Luka has always been a Pošip lover, another white grape from Korčula Island – and just as interesting.

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Appearing 100 years ago on the island (spontaneous crossing of two other local varieties: Bratkovina x Zlatarice), this highly aromatic variety (mainly with an exotic fruit profile), with a great acidity level that balances a relatively high alcohol content, encounters great success. With no less than 6 different Pošip styles – from the stainless steel tank, to the barrel, to an ageing on the lees, a sweet wine version or one with 100 days maceration on the skins – Luka is definitely the “King of Pošip”.

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The great Croatian estates – as well as the native grape varieties – are legion. I already look forward to coming back, to continue exploring this incomparable wine (and cultural) heritage.

WineExplorers’cheers,
JBA

Thank you to CMREČNJAK, Sember, Radovan, Coronica, Stina, Krajančić, Bire estates and to Léo Gracin, for their warm welcome. Thank you to our friends Ante & Barbara BACIC, from Les Robes de l’Est, for their valuable recommendations of wineries, and especially Barbara for having accompanied and guided us on the ground. Finally, thanks to Mr Željko Suhadolnik (Editor-in-Chief of Svijet u čaši) and to Mr Ivan Dropuljić (Director of Zagreb fair VINOcom), for having join us during our visit to Sember.

(1) At the end of the Second World War, Tito’s communism took place, the country then focused more on quantity than on quality.
(2) Teran – originally from Slovenia and also produced in Italy – is also known as Cagnina, Refosk, Refosca of Istria, Refosco del carso, Refosco dal peduncolo rosso, Rabiosa nera, Crodarina or Magnacan.
(3) Prošek is a traditional sweet wine produced exclusively in Dalmatia from grapes dried in the sun. This method, often called “passerillage”, makes it possible to dehydrate the bunches, giving a maximum concentration of sugar. The Prošek usually bears between 15 and 17 degrees of alc.